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MEDIA AND MENTAL HEALTH STIGMA: AN INTERESTING ENCOUNTER

Back in April 2012 I saw an advert entitled ‘Channel 4 programme on stigma attached to mental health in the workplace seeks participants’. I responded to the Channel 4 advert regarding the making of this programme on mental health stigma and employment as I thought it looked interesting, and a couple of days later I had a phone call from somebody from the Channel 4 production team.

I found myself feeling quite cynical whilst speaking to the Channel 4 guy. First, due to what I perceived as his worrying ignorance of the English mental health system and law-he was making a documentary about stigma and mental health for God’s sake! He asked me for details of my mental health history and I told him that I had been detained in hospital under the Mental Health Act (MHA) 2007 back in 2009. His question following that was: ‘Was that voluntary?’ I nearly fell off my chair but I managed to restrain myself from saying something offensive to him about his ignorance. I only said that when you are detained in hospital under the MHA, you are there not voluntarily but compulsorily!

Second, the Channel 4 guy said that for the purposes of the programme the production team would select 4 people with ‘diagnosed’ mental health problems and 4 without such problems, and my understanding was that they were trying to somehow represent (my emphasis) the population of mental health service users through these 4 people! I thought and said, ‘Hang on a minute…even with the best intentions, you will not be able to achieve representation and take into account all the parameters of diversity – age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education level, to mention but a few!’

Third, I  felt that the Channel 4 guy I was talking to (although most probably he had experienced the pain of discrimination and racism- he must have been an Asian guy judging from his name) had an irritatingly casual style when he was asking me for details about my mental health history- things that are very sensitive and painful. I don’t mind talking about these things; I have talked about them to mental health professionals at nauseum but also publicly in research seminars and other talks, so I am used to talking about them and do not necessarily need people’s sympathy or empathy. But I still found the guy’s casual style insensitive and rather disrespectful and inconsiderate. I guess the casual style may have been a kind of defence that detached from painful content and hence protected. On the other hand, my friend who has worked for the BBC says that the casual style of media people is mere callousness.

A very interesting encounter with a media person this phone call. He said he would have to take what I told him to somebody senior in the production team and a process of selection for the programme would be followed.  I did not hear back from him, so I guess I did not pass the first stage of selection. I suspect that during the phone call my cynicism probably transpired!

I would not wish to generalise and claim that all Channel 4 journalists involved with mental health programmes are ignorant when it comes to the English mental health system and law. I can even try and be optimistic and hope that the guy I spoke to is the exception and not the rule. But my encounter is certainly a very worrying example and mental health charities, such as Mind or Rethink Mental Illness, that promote media programmes seeking to tackle mental health stigma (including the Channel 4 programme in question where they had an advisory role) need to be made aware and sensitised to these issues.

Finally, back in April I thought there were other problems with the intended Channel 4 programme as well. Just to illustrate- the production team wanted to select 4 people with ‘diagnosed’ mental health problems and 4 people without such problems (2 groups) who would be evaluated by a panel of experts (including business experts and psychiatrists). However, the 4 people without ‘diagnosed’ problems may still have mental health difficulties they struggle with that they may not want to disclose. In that case, on what basis was a comparison going to be made between the 2 groups following the evaluations of the panel of experts? My understanding was that what the programme sought to do was to show that people with diagnosed mental health problems can perform various work-related tasks equally well and be equally employable as people without mental health problems, which would contribute to destigmatising mental illness and questioning prejudices around it. But as I said above, a crude distinction between people with and without diagnosed mental health problems may be problematic, and if so, the entire endeavour could fail in showing anything whatsoever!

The Channel 4 programme referred to above was actually broadcasted on 25th July 2012 and was entitled ‘World’s Maddest Job Interview’. The programme was part of the Channel 4 mental health season entitled ‘4 Goes Mad’. The World’s Maddest Job Interview is described on the 4 Goes Mad website ( http://4goesmad.channel4.com/) as a programme where ‘eight volunteers – some with significant mental health conditions and some without- have their work skills evaluated as they try to impress a panel of business experts […] Potential employers and psychiatrists observe the eight candidates and try to determine who is the most employable, without any knowledge of their mental health history’. Undoubtedly influenced strongly by my earlier encounter with the guy from the Channel 4 production team and what I perceived as problematic in relation to the Channel 4 programme, I did not watch the World’s Maddest Job Interview. In hindsight, I wish I had watched the programme as that would have allowed me to ascertain whether my concerns and scepticism were justified.

 

(From the New Zealand Film Archive)

 

 


How I became involved with the Asylum magazine

How I became involved with the Asylum magazine and what such involvement has meant for me:  a journey through madness and back.

My first encounter with the Asylum magazine occurred in the spring of 2010 – when the magazine was relaunched after a 3-year break. I was introduced to Asylum by Helen (Spandler), a friend and colleague from the University of Central Lancashire and member of the Asylum editorial collective, and I have been reading it religiously ever since. In the autumn of 2011 Helen asked me whether I would be interested in being involved in the Asylum editorial collective, stressing that ‘the collective is open to anyone who wants to help produce and develop the magazine, working in a spirit of equality’. I was pleased to be asked and I have been a member of the collective for about a year.

I feel that in order to communicate effectively how and why I became involved with the Asylum magazine, as well as what such involvement has meant for me, it is essential to locate my involvement with Asylum in the context of my life –and particularly, in the context of my journey through mental illness (for want of a better word) and mental health services in the period 2008-2010.

I had my first major mental health crisis, an episode of ‘clinical depression and anxiety’ according to the official diagnosis, in 1991 when I was studying for a Master’s degree in Nottingham University. Following this mental health crisis, I embarked on a long journey of self-discovery and healing which comprised having intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy and completing a PhD on the experience of depression in young people as its vital components. My second major mental health crisis, this time a prolonged episode of ‘treatment-resistant psychotic depression’ according to the official diagnosis, occurred between July 2008 and April 2010, resulting in a 3-month long detention under a section in an acute psychiatric ward in Manchester in 2009, as well as a 2-year period of unemployment. Following this second mental health crisis, I returned to my research post at the University of Central Lancashire (where I had worked as a Research Fellow until the summer of 2008) and started working on a mental health advocacy project as a service user researcher in the summer of 2010.  Hence, I have been using mental health services in Manchester since the summer of 2008, including attending START, a mental health arts project, and having individual psychotherapy with an NHS clinical psychologist – both vital for my recovery.

It is important to draw special attention to the fact that I first encountered the Asylum magazine in the spring of 2010- that was a critical turning point in my journey through madness and back, so to speak, as it was the start of my getting better, the beginning of my recovery from a very serious and enduring mental health crisis.

It is also crucial to bear in mind that my mental health crisis back in 2008-2010 had catastrophic consequences for every aspect of my life. First and foremost, as a result of my very severe and persistent depression, for a couple of years, I lost what had always been a vital source of self-esteem and recognition for me-my capacity to think creatively and excel intellectually/academically. I could not think clearly, I could not concentrate and retain information, I could not process language, I could not read and understand what I was reading, I could not be intellectually creative. My head was constantly heavy and cloudy due to the potent medication I was prescribed- especially when I was on copious amounts of it. I was off work for nearly 2 years and thus away from opportunities for intellectual stimulation for far too long. When I was detained in hospital, I was treated as somebody who lacks capacity and insight. Characteristically, my care records covering the period of my detention in hospital (January-April 2009) portray me -among others- as ‘dishevelled, retarded, highly agitated, lethargic and far from mentally alert, incontinent and occasionally subjected to physical restraint’. I guess all the above represented a huge blow to my confidence and a source of profound feelings of humiliation and shame, as well as a source of a deep sense of failure and unfairness/injustice- all acutely disempowering emotions. In a nutshell, my mental health crisis back in 2008-2010 and in particular my sectioning in 2009 were scarring, terrifying experiences whereby the very core of my existence was deeply shaken and all my certainties collapsed; therefore, the struggle to regain my confidence and repair my life, a struggle that began slowly in the spring of 2010 and is still continuing, has been hugely challenging. It was at the start of that struggle that I encountered Asylum, and Asylum has been with me throughout my recovery journey.

Why I became involved with the Asylum magazine and what such involvement has meant for me

a) My involvement with Asylum has afforded me a sense of community through contact with other mental health service users/psychiatric survivors and their allies, as well as through acquaintance with the psychiatric survivor movement at large and its rich collective knowledge and history; this sense of community -first and foremost- has helped reduce the acute sense of loneliness brought about by the terror and disempowerment I  experienced all the way through my mental health crisis (back in 2008-2010) and my sectioning in particular.

b) Asylum has provided me with a safe space (forum) to tell the story of my struggle to recover from mental ill health, to express my views on mental health care freely, to be listened to and be taken seriously; Asylum has afforded me a space where I can be inspired and give voice to my resistance, rebellion and critical stance to the practices of oppression and degradation of the self often used by modern biomedical psychiatry. Telling my story, articulating my views and being taken seriously has been really validating and empowering, as well as conducive to the cognitive and affective processing of my trauma.

Whilst browsing the Asylum magazine website, under the section entitled ‘History of Asylum’, I read ‘Our central aim in encouraging those who felt hurt by the system to write was the hope that it would help them to express their views, which would also be discussed. So we tried to offer them “a proper place at the table”. There they would be given as good a chance as is possible to be taken seriously’.

c) Asylum represents a space where I can safely value and honour madness and mad/psychiatric survivor knowledge as meaningful in the context of my life and other people’s lives without having to romanticise and idealise it. I feel rather uncomfortable with the tendency to romanticise and idealise madness and mad knowledge which appears to often characterise- for example- Mad Pride, those calling themselves ‘experts by experience’ (considering psychiatric survivor knowledge as ‘special’ knowledge, which reflects a presumed epistemological privilege for mental health service users), those who portray all people with mental health problems as struggling creative geniuses equating madness to creative brilliance (where creativity is viewed as an inherent element of madness), or those who perceive madness as a blessing linking madness (extreme states of consciousness) to mystical states and shamanism. The individuals I came across in North Manchester hospital whilst sectioned did not strike me by any means as poets or shamans but as acutely distressed and unhappy people; I was one of them of course…

d) Asylum has provided me with a space where it is acceptable to be profoundly ambivalent towards my latest mental health crisis, service use and recovery, where it is ok to be uncertain and not know when it comes to questions around how I feel about and evaluate my journey through madness and back. As I explained above, my mental health crisis back in 2008-2010 and in particular my hospitalisation and sectioning in 2009 represent major biographical disruptions for me that entailed huge losses, traumas and suffering, having catastrophic consequences for every aspect of my life, which has left me feeling a great deal of bitterness and anger, as well as deep sadness and an acute sense of loss. At the same time, I recognise that my latest mental health crisis and in particular my journey of recovery (including foremost my experience of therapy and my participation in the START mental health arts project) opened up opportunities for personal growth and transformation for me, affording me hope and new insights into the human condition. Hence, my feelings about and evaluations of my journey through madness and back are characterised by profound ambivalence. If madness is ‘a dangerous gift’ that users of psychiatric services need to embrace, as Mad Pride advocates, I am yet to embrace my own madness. Furthermore, I find the conceptualisation of ‘recovery’ in the current recovery discourse rather simplistic and problematic – especially when recovery is romanticised and presented as a rather linear journey of continuous and ever increasing optimism that will inevitably lead to a finalised acceptance of one’s mental health crisis and therefore happiness (exaggerating a bit here). My own recovery has been a far from linear process where hope has incessantly alternated with bitterness/anger and grief- it has been a much more muddled journey. Asylum offers a space where muddle, ambivalence, uncertainty, and not knowing are tolerated and can be worked through.

e)Last but not least, since my first encounter with Asylum I was drawn to  the word ‘Asylum’ and the phrase ‘democratic  psychiatry’ (from the magazine’s title); the word and phrase in question resonate deeply with me and carry a particular emotional weight as they come from Greek, my mother tongue; ‘Asylum’ means sanctuary, safe refuge and something that should not be violated-for example in Greece there is ‘University asylum’ which entails that the police should not enter University spaces forcibly;  University asylum was brutally violated by the army during a student uprising in the 1967-74 dictatorship in Greece and this violation has become synonymous to tyranny in the memory of Greek people; ‘democratic’ means  ‘of the power of the people’ which in my psyche is strongly linked to the longstanding struggles of my people to achieve freedom (including freedom of speech), democracy, respect for human rights, and justice for their country; I guess for me – due to all these powerful associations of the word’ democratic’ to freedom /lack of coercion, justice, and respect for human rights  – the phrase ‘democratic psychiatry’ is a particularly powerful articulation of an ideal of – or rather of a deep longing for – humane and emancipatory psychiatry that refrains from coercion and injustice and has the potential to heal- an ideal that certainly stands in stark contrast to the reality of the totally untherapeutic and unsafe psychiatric care I experienced when sectioned back in 2009. This longing, I imagine, explains -to a very large extent- my involvement with Asylum and its mission and values.

[This blog post first appeared on the website for the The Ragged Project.]


Broken System, Not Broken People by Michael Richmond

The writer Dan Hind recently commented in his pamphlet, Common Sense, that many people with mental health problems who have taken part in occupation movements around the world in recent years have noticed an improvement in their condition. I myself joined the editorial team of The Occupied Times of London just as I was beginning to emerge from a long period of anxiety and depression which had suddenly halted every aspect of my life. Read more


China Mills’ letter – Spanish version

Speak out against Ian Parker’s Suspension (Spanish Version)

Queridxs amigxs,
Ha sucedido algo increíble. Ian Parker ha sido suspendido de la Manchester Metropolitan University. Ha sucedido de repente y de forma inesperada, y ni a los estudiantes ni al personal de la Universidad se les ha dado apenas explicación del por qué. Ian fue suspendido de su trabajo después de haber sido incapaz de conseguir, -tras apenas 18 horas desde su aviso-, que un dirigente sindical le acompañara a oír la acusación de “grave mala conducta profesional” que la Universidad le imputa. Todo esto se debe a que Ian ha expresado su preocupación dentro de la Universidad por la cuestión del secreto y el control en el departamento en el que trabaja, y ha sido suspendido por hacerlo. Se le ha exigido abandonar su oficina y su clave de acceso, advirtiéndole de no ponerse en contacto con personal de la Universidad ni con estudiantes, y se le ha retirado su acceso al correo electrónico. Para sus estudiantes, Ian simplemente ha “desaparecido” de la noche a la mañana, y aunque él está dispuesto a continuar sus tareas de supervisión y docencia, no le está permitido.

Es imposible encontrar las palabras adecuadas para expresar lo que esta imprevista, chocante y completamente injustificada suspensión significa para los y las estudiantes de la MMU y para la comunidad académica internacional. La suspensión de Ian tiene lugar en un contexto más amplio, en el Reino Unido, donde mientras las universidades cobran a los estudiantes 9000 libras al año (y mucho más a los estudiantes internacionales), se recortan recursos esenciales, lo que a menudo significa que el personal tiene que trabajar más y quejarse menos. Esto significa que el personal que defiende la Universidad como espacio para el debate abierto y democrático, es a menudo presionado para permanecer en silencio. De hecho, otro miembro del personal de la MMU (miembro también de la University and College Union- la UCU), Christine Vié, también ha sido
intimidada y despedida (hay una campaña activa en su defensa).

Estamos en shock, pero sólo si hablamos abiertamente todas juntas estaremos en condiciones de desafiar y cambiar lo que nos está sucediendo. La apertura y el debate democrático son el sello distintivo de una buena educación. Sin embargo, el secreto y el silenciamiento son asuntos centrales en lo que está sucediendo. Ian ha sido silenciado pero su obra sigue hablando. Ayer estuve revisando los objetivos principales de “Psychology, Politics, Resistance”, la cual Ian ayudó a crear en 1994, como una red de personas dispuestas a oponerse a los usos abusivos y a las consecuencias opresivas de la psicología, dispuestas a apoyar a las personas para cuestionar la explotación, a desarrollar una oposición colectiva y activa frente a la opresión, y a hacer de todo ello un elemento clave en la educación de todos los psicólogos y psicólogas. En consonancia, vamos a actuar juntas, y a seguir el ejemplo de Ian, y a hablar y a contárselo a tantas personas como podamos, y reunirnos conjuntamente como una comunidad internacional crítica que inste a la administración de la MMU a resolver el problema y readmitir a Ian.

Los mensajes de protesta pueden ser enviados a la vicecanciller John Brooks [email protected] y a la Jefa del Departamento de Psicología, Christine Horrocks (c.horrocks @ mmu.ac.uk). Estos mensajes pueden ser copiados en forma de mensajes de solidaridad a la chair de MMU UCU, Ariza Pura (p.ariza @ mmu.ac.uk) y es imperativo que, al mismo tiempo, mostremos nuestro apoyo a Christine Vié ([email protected]).

Los estudiantes de postgrado de la MMU enviarán una carta al rector, se repartirán folletos, habrá carteles por el campus e intervenciones informativas durante la próxima semana.Por favor, enviad cartas y correos electrónicos, y decídselo a tanta gente cómo podáis.

Seguiremos informando sobre próximas acciones. Haznos saber si tienes alguna idea sobre cómo podemos luchar juntas contra esto (porque juntas podemos). Por favor, siéntete libre de escirbirme a [email protected]

En solidaridad,
China Mills (junto con muchos otros estudiantes de la MMU)


Dina’s Story: Why I Absconded From an Acute Ward by Dina Poursanidou

In 2009 I was compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act in an acute psychiatric ward in North Manchester Hospital. I absconded twice within a week during my first month there – fairly soon after my admission – even though I was supposedly on close 1:1 observation, especially at night. This was because I was acutely suicidal when I was first admitted, and that was the reason for my sectioning. Read more


Signifier Surfing – or putting a surfboard to the S1 S1 S1 waves by Alastair Kemp

Background

In 1995 I was hospitalised at Barnet General Psychiatric Unit suffering from psychosis and hearing voices. I was diagnosed with schizophrenia and submitted to a regime of medication, then released back into the community. In 2006 whilst studying for a Masters I read Michel Foucault’s book Discipline and Punish, and I recognised in his description of military schools and borstals the physical architecture of the school where I had experienced the trauma I now associate as partly behind my psychosis. But it was in his description of the famous Panopticon1 that I recognised the psychic architecture of my psychosis and voice hearing.

During this time I also started to attend a hearing voices group and got interested in the Hearing Voices Network. This experience together with my understanding of Foucault came to form the basis for a PhD. However within two years of starting my research my daughter was born with Crouzon’s Syndrome and I was in and out of Great Ormond Street hospital; combined with the fact that I had recently managed to withdraw from my medication after 15 years, the stress associated with my daughter’s disability brought on a new psychosis.

This time though, because of my studies, I had new research to hand to understand what was happening. And through this I attempted to regain my autonomy and find new ways of recovering.

This is an attempt to tell a narrative of my new experience of psychosis. The original narrative was written at a time when I was very psychotic. The narrative here is an edited version that is, hopefully, far clearer. As Hemingway said “Write drunk; edit sober”, or as I say ‘Write psychotic, edit stable’.

Signifier Surfing

Many people involved in the hearing voices movement have started to show evidence for a link between traumatic experiences and mental health issues – especially in psychosis. In the first issue of the re-launched Asylum magazine, Marius Romme argued that perhaps voices are emotions.

There is a suggestion that the unconscious may be making a come back. As Nietzsche said Das Es [the Id/Thing/ Unconscious] speaks.

So what can one make of the supposedly psychotic hearing voices experience with regard to the language if the unconscious may be structured as a language as the psychoanalyst Lacan argued? Recently I have been in a few positions that have made me feel powerless, not just bodily, but also with respect to my relation to the world and this has tested my already confused ego’s ability to deal with severely conflicting emotions. Even in situations where I may be receiving positive support, my relation with institutions appears as one of intimidation and alienation.

When there is nothing I can do, or what I can do seems insignificant and dwarf-like it seems better to do something I can feel powerful about elsewhere. And so I write, and when I can’t write, I walk.

Many of my voices come from experiences of engagement with those who vehemently defend the status quo and during my recent stressful experiences they had gained the upper hand, thus making it hard for me to retain my autonomy. Or at least that autonomy I have hitherto been permitted and that I have fought for, in the sense that it seems you are only permitted what you fight for, if you stop, that too is taken away.

You have to fight for the right for your emotions to party, and under section 442, the right to wander freely has been taken away. This is what the philosopher Gilles Deleuze (Deleuze and Guattari 2004) means by taking a line of flight within psychosis. The gate is barred, you have to follow desire paths in another direction: create your own space (survivor movement); re-wire those paths that have been blocked (CBT); sublimate the hell out of it (art therapy); or if you are some of our more assimilated brethren, get a job (recovery as imposed by ATOS3).

To the extent that I have felt powerless, my psychosis has from time to time entered Delphic proportions, in the sense of Sophocles’ tales of Oedipus, I cannot seem to escape the fatal and traumatic path laid out for me, each futile attempt to tread my own path turns out to have been preordained.

So I took up signifier surfing. A signifier relates to the sign by means of the signified, that is that which we have in mind when we are referring to something in the real world. The sign is most often a word and is only understood by the way it relates to another word. On its own a sign is arbitrary.

According to Lacan, the psychotic makes connections between signifiers, S1, S1, S1(Lacan 1993; Lacan and Miller 1998). S/He links up these signifiers by lateral thinking, what would be called apophenia in psychiatry, when the sign gets separated from its meaning. It is the experience of seeing meaningful patterns or connections in to the S1, S1, S1 waves random or meaningless data. When this happens to me I start surfing the signs and the structure of language becomes a surfboard for the waves of my emotions. A bush means someone is upset and liable to scapegoat, a bird’s tweet will suggest superficial gossip, the delivery man’s banter to the baker will be about the coming of the obeah man (and e’s coming to get you cross, hot and cross, unless you are forcibly sacrificed)4. But the obeah man has no power over you if you own your labour, emotions, decisions and truth. He only applies his voodoo to the alienated believers, those with faith in the Protestant Ethic. Gather the multitude.

At the moment I encounter a difficulty in my emotional environment that refuses my ability to express my emotions in an Enlightenment approved understanding, a form of rationality based on a denial of the emotions (the passions, demons, obstacles, Satans, complexes, knots). This inability often stems from trauma and failed learning or development with regard to linguistic communication, emotional blocks as a result of say double binds, or shaming.

At such times I fall back on a past understanding of signs triggered by powerful emotions, and in doing so I become estranged from my body, that part of me which communicates my emotions to my cognition. The world around me then communicates with me directly, seemingly from the outside, via emotions that have lost any meaning with regard to what could be regarded as an interpersonal and consensual world view. In this sense I become alienated in my language. The words I hear as voices have no direct meaning with regard to what I am experiencing, but I am caught up in them. The shared discourse, the use of language
as a form of communication by which we try to understand each other and reality, is no longer immediately available to me. The Other becomes as a vampire noumenon5 and the Symbolic its blood-sucking Law (Land, Mackay, and Brassier 2011)and Brassier 2011.

And so I surf the signifiers, trying to find some emotional purchase, until I find a break that allows me to reach the calm waters and sink down into the waves, and return to some sense of shared meaning.

This means that in a hostile environment either vacating the area to a place of safety to allow my body to do its own thing and finally relax, or by breaking the signifier chain. Or finally and most successfully, find someone who will recognise what you are feeling, and empathise with you rather than enslave you. Help you name that sign, that emotion, put a meaning to the feeling. A significant Other to support, guide and befriend you. Recognise you as who you can become and not trap you as they want you to be; someone who can be-inthe- world with you rather than over you.

In his book ‘Nomad Codes’, Erik Davis talks of ‘bardo’; “the insubstantial in between state [the Tibetans claim] that confronts the soul after death, when the contents of the mind return to seduce and terrify the ego’s disorientated after-image as it reverberates into rebirth”. He then adds the following as an idea of the last minutes of electrical activity after death, when, perhaps, our life flashes before our eyes;

“the traditional teachings of bardo navigation may come in handy despite the basic reality of brain death: even if we are riding the last wave of flatline, it pays to know how to surf.”(Davis 2010, 347–348).

When the Real insists on returning to one constantly, denying one’s emotional autonomy, in the form of soul murder as Schreber called it, when one’s life becomes one interminable wave to flatline, what can one do but surf on
the shores of the heart of darkness?

Notes
1. The panopticon was a type of building designed by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham. It consisted of a tower surrounded by back-lit cells that allowed the observer in the tower to see all of those in the cells. It was supposed to be a blueprint for prisons, schools, factories and other regimes that
required a particular kind of productivity. Foucault argued that as the beauty of it was that those in the cells had no idea whether they were being observed from the tower. It meant that it was not necessary for someone to be there permanently, just the idea that someone might be was enough.

2. Section 44 refers to the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994), Section 44 of the Mental Health Act (2007) and Section 44 of the Terrorism Bill (2000). In my madness it refers to the i-Ching number 44: Kou (Coming to Meet)..

3. ATOS: the UK’s leading occupational health (OH) service provider of medical staff for the Employment and Support Allowance assessment which is receiving continued criticism for not being fit for purpose.

4. ‘Coming of the Obeah Man’ Mad Professor – Science and The Witchdoctor (Dub Me Crazy Pt. 9), Ariwa, ARILP 045

5. The noumenon is the idea of the transcendent, that which cannot be known as it lies outside our subjective phenomenological experience.

References

  • Davis, Erik. 2010. Nomad Codes : Adventures in Modern Esoterica. Portland, OR: Verse Chorus Press.
  • Deleuze, Gilles, and Guattari, Felix. 2004. A Thousand Plateaus : Capitalism and Schizophrenia. London ;New York: Continuum.
  • Lacan, Jacques. 1993. The Psychoses: The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book III 1955-1956. London: Routledge.
  • Lacan, Jacques, and Miller, Jacques-Alain. 1998. The Seminar. 11, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. New York [u.a.]: Norton.
  • Land, Nick, Mackay, Robin, and Brassier, Ray. 2011.
  • Fanged Noumena : Collected Writings 1987-2007. Falmouth; New York, NY: Urbanomic ; Sequence Press.

This is a sample article from Asylum 19.2.  To access the latest issue in full, SUBSCRIBE HERE.